EV Effect on Air Pollution in India

In this article, we will discuss EV Effect on Air Pollution in India and their other benefits.

India is the most populous country in the world right now and is a developing country. We are facing numerous challenges and problems right now. One such problem is air pollution which has become a major concern for the health and safety of our people. The air quality index of major cities in our country is degrading day by day. It is becoming very difficult to breathe in such poor air quality which can cause a lot of problems related to mental and physical health. According to a report, more than 4.2 billion deaths are reported every year due to outdoor pollution which is creating serious problems and concerns.

The major contributor to air pollution is the transportation sector. With the increase in population, the number of vehicles plying on road is increasing day by day at a very high rate. These internal combustion engine vehicles emit a lot of harmful gases, CO2, and greenhouse gases which are contributing to the poor quality of air. We cannot reduce the number of vehicles on the road as the development of the country depends on the transport sector. The only thing that we can do is to find an alternative for these vehicles which can reduce the level of pollution in the air.

EV Effect on Air Pollution

First of all, we need to understand what air pollution is and why it is caused. According to a report by the World Health Organization, air pollution in simple terms is any chemical, biological, or physical factor that contaminates the indoor or outdoor environment and makes the quality of air bad. These factors also alter the natural properties of the atmosphere and disturb the balance of the natural properties that are already present in the air. There can be many reasons for air pollution such as household combustion devices, vehicles running on the road, industrial facilities, forest fires, and many more.

Causes of Air Pollution

  • Transport Emissions – The basic reason behind air pollution nowadays is the emission from the transport sector. We are a developing country and the number of vehicles running on the road is increasing day by day. The number of people moving from one place to another is increasing. These vehicles create a lot of road dust which in turn pollutes the air. These are mostly seen in metropolitan cities where the number of vehicles per 1000 people is very high.
  • Traffic Congestion– This is another major contributor to air pollution in metropolitan towns and cities. Traffic condition can be caused due to several factors which increases the number of vehicles per kilometer. We can clearly see around us that the average traffic speed reduces during peak hours and causes traffic congestion. During this traffic congestion, vehicles use fuel inefficiently and pollute more at low speeds which degrades the quality of air.
  • Industrial Processes– In order to become a developed country, we need lots and lots of industries, and that too with the latest technology which uses a lot of energy sources. These industries use biomass, plastic, crude oil, and other types of fuels for their processes and in turn emit huge volumes of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and chemicals in the open air causing the greenhouse effect which increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Role of the Transport Sector in Air Pollution

As we have already discussed, vehicles running on the road emit a lot of harmful gases. They are a major source of air pollution which accounts for more than 70,000 deaths in India per year. These vehicles emit carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, photochemical oxidants, and benzene. Their toxins lead to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and many more harmful elements in the air. These are released as a result of fuel emissions. Air pollution is a serious issue that is increasing on a daily basis.

The air quality of major metropolitan cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Surat, and Indore is going down day by day, and is becoming difficult to survive in the cities. The number of automobiles and vehicles is increasing in the cities on a daily basis which contributes to air pollution and needs to be checked at the earliest.

Role of Electric Vehicles in Reducing Air Pollution

We know that we cannot reduce the number of vehicles. The only thing that we can do is to find an alternative for these vehicles that will emit less harmful chemicals into the air. The Indian government is also attempting to boost the use of electric vehicles. This will minimize the existing internal combustion engine vehicles. Our government has set a target. They want to reach at least 30% of vehicles running on the road by 2030 should be electric. For this, a lot of subsidies and incentives are being provided to encourage people to use electric mobility. Many States have already started to electrify their public transportation systems and are setting milestones for others to follow.

These electric vehicles emit very less particulate matter than diesel or petrol vehicles. Switching to electric vehicles means eliminating all the dangerous exhaust pollutants. So, the only solution that is available in front of us is to switch to electric vehicles.


Conventional internal combustion engine vehicles mostly use disc brakes to slow down. This causes brake pollution and releases particles into the environment which causes pollution. Whereas, on the other hand, electric vehicles use regenerative breaking. This in turn gives energy to the car’s battery and recharges it. It also eliminates the need to apply brakes and also lowers particle emissions in the environment. This shows the EV Effect on Air Pollution.

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